Writing a dissertation is about demonstrating your deep knowledge, expertise, and some important skills. Analytical thinking is one of the main.
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- Comparison of Dissertation and Thesis
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Study and exams; Academic writing. Second, the sentence patterns, modifiers, hedges, acknowledgees and keywords used in the thanking acts and the use of authorial subject were analysed using the concordance software package, WordSmith Tools v 5. As can be seen, doctoral DAs have three or more steps than masters DAs in each discipline. The difference in the amount of time spent studying an MA degree in the two settings may be the likely cause of this contrast. The prolonged duration of study in Taiwan likely involves the help of a greater number of individuals, which could lead to TWCs writing longer DAs in recognition of the greater amount of assistance they may have received over the extended period of time.
Unlike the two referred corpora, not each step was utilised in the present texts. In the masters DAs, step 3. Announcing Responsibility was not found. TABLE 1. PhD 1. Reflecting 30 15 35 26 10 20 10 13 20 2. Thanking 2. Announcing 3.
Reflecting 20 26 13 2. Reflecting 20 24 22 2. Reflecting 0. This implies that the writers in the three contexts largely followed similar generic patterns while writing their DAs. Yet, the TWCs still exhibited the highest percentages of steps 2.
Comparison of Dissertation and Thesis
These disparities suggest that most TWCs strictly follow the essay writing guidelines of presenting ideas from generality to specificity. In addition, TWCs could be more emotional or willing to express their gratitude to the people who provided them with moral support, and possibly Taiwanese people are also more supportive and respectful of those culturally-respected academic elite. Nevertheless, in the present study, the MA texts show higher percentages than the PhD texts of step 2.
Thus, they asserted that CNCs exercise the modesty maxim of the politeness principle. However, TWCs may value their work more than CNCs do, and as a result dedicate it to others including family members, research participants, advisors, God, and even their pets. Thus, dedication is considered as an act of joy and honour rather than as showing off. In addition to the different percentages of steps among the three corpora, several features in the present study were also identified in the construction of the generic structure.
That is, the structure of DAs is rather diverse. Many personal detailed stories were written as part of the thanking acts, and some literature majors wrote poems to express their thanks. Many of the MA writers made closing comments Al-Ali such as Thank you all, Thank all those who ever gave me a boost, and My thanks to many others who ever helped me but are not listed here.
This new step can be much culture-embedded, and further research may be required to understand why it is included. Hyland argued that supervisors appeared in all DAs. In addition, the results also suggest that TWC writers expanded their gratitude to a broader range of acknowledgees. Other than the frequently-acknowledged people e. The dissertations of English literature majors usually depend on literary works and this heavy reliance made them perceive that it was indispensable to express gratitude to those authors. TABLE 6.
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A comparison of the use of these patterns of expressing gratitude among the three corpora is presented in Table 7. However, the disciplines included in this corpus belong to the social sciences and humanities.
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Another possible explanation may be cultural. Table 7. However, the degree of intensification also changes in accordance with the status of the acknowledgees. To thank advisors, honorific and exaggerated words, especially superlatives, were frequently seen with the choice of vocabulary such as best, deepest, foremost, earnest, sincerest, warmest, everlasting, or eternal in order to show respect for those who are a symbol of absolute authority, power, and seniority. These adjectives esp. When thanking family, the writers chose more personal words such as dear, profoundly, deep, or especially.
I thank all the friends…or I would like to thank my friends… was thus repeatedly used to convey a very direct and less formal tone. In addition, many performative verb patterns in thanking acts also included hedging modals or mental state verbs e. Nevertheless, TWCs had the lowest percentage use of such modals and state verbs.
This may suggest that rather than keeping a definite demarcation between acknowledger and acknowledgees, the TWC writers might blur the differentiation of seniority and authority. The relationship with advisors is not just that between a teacher and student but is also like that of a parent and child. TABLE 8.
Most writers mimic previous examples. Hence, this study generated a list which categorises all the keywords used in DAs according to word function see Appendix A. For instance, from the high rankings of Dr. The list also offers implications regarding to whom e. Hyland and Tse found that the adjectives used to express gratitude typically end in — ful. This form is unusual compared with everyday usage and thus makes DAs rather formal. Yet, in the list, the adjectives ending in —ful only rank third statistically, after the first —ed and the second —ing i.
This difference may come from different academic conventions or contextualised factors such as experience of learning English. Academic conventions, experiences of learning English, contextualised values, personal dispositions, relationships with acknowledgees, and individual writing styles may account for this diversity. Thus, the findings of this paper support what the previously-cited research argues, that is, that this particular genre is dynamic, changeable, and is able to be manipulated. Moreover, rhetorical forms need to fit a specific setting with its preferred choices and value systems.
This research also pedagogically suggests that EAP teachers can explicitly instruct students in how to write purposeful and interactional acknowledgements by offering student writers knowledge of the language e. Additional analysis can be carried out to complement this research.
Dissertation acknowledgements from the hard sciences can be compared to this analysis of DAs in the humanities and social sciences. In addition, DAs written by overseas Taiwanese postgraduates who studied in the USA, UK, and Australia can be collected in order to examine whether different academic environments exercise a stronger influence on writing DAs than cultural values do.
Similarly, a comparison study of DAs written in two different contexts by their respective native speakers e. English L1 speakers can be conducted to examine if the status of English use in a context will affect how a structure is formed and what linguistic choices are made. Finally, to better ensure that writers perceive their identities and learn how they write DAs as writers, continued investigations such as interviews or ethnographic methods need to be integrated into projects that concentrate on corpus analysis.
It is believed in Chinese culture that people living on a large continent and those on a small island surrounded by the ocean would develop different dispositions. Hyland offered similar information but using different calculations; therefore, it cannot be compared here. The only exception comes from a PhD candidate with an English literature major. Commonality and individuality in academic writing: An analysis of conference paper titles of four scholars.
English for Specific Purposes World. Afful, J. The construction of multiple identities in the acknowledgement section of a masters dissertation. Al-Ali, M. Conveying academic and social identity in graduate dissertation acknowledgments. Atai, M. A contrastive genre analysis of result and discussion sections of applied linguistic research articles written by native and non-native English speakers with respect to evaluated entities and ascribed values.http://mta-sts.waahhh.com.my/6173-de-los-dueos.php
Independent Work | Comparative Literature
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